The State of Aloha
Our water law was certainly in the news this week. The decade-old lawsuit pitting Native Hawaiians and environmentalists against corporate institutions that have been part of Maui since the 19th century is over.
Na Wai Eha means “the four waters” of Waikapu Stream, Iao Stream, Waihee River and the Waiehu Stream. They are the main source of freshwater for Central Maui. Long before any of us were around, these waters flowed from the green mountains toward the ocean. The first people to divert some of its waters were the Native Hawaiian farmers. Their descendants used the streams to maintain their crops. Early cases point out that these diversionary ditches had been around since time immemorial.
Then came sugar. After the American Civil War cut off America’s industrial cities from the Deep South’s sugar beets, the demand for Hawaiian sugar went through the roof. Sugar plantations and companies sprouted up throughout the islands, including Wailuku Sugar Co.
Sugar’s a thirsty crop. Companies started diverting streams into irrigation ditches and reservoirs. By the 1890s, all four streams had been diverted and Wailuku Sugar had control of the water.
Kalo famers took notice. Their crops dried up and wilted away while Central Maui turned green with acres of cane. They sued the company. Sugar baron Claus Spreckles himself intervened. (His eponymous ditch still runs water through the heart of Wailuku town.)
The farmers argued that the diversion of Iao Stream was unlawful. The Hawaii Supreme Court ruled in favor of the farmers but limited their use of the stream to nighttime. The rest of the time the stream could be used by the sugar companies. The farmers may have won their case, but eventually everyone seemed to have forgotten. The sugar companies took more and more water for their crops.
In the meantime, Wailuku Sugar Co. got into a bitter dispute with Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co. HC&S had the land but wanted more water. Wailuku Sugar Co. had the water but not as much land. They didn’t bury the hatchet, and their dispute went on for more than 20 years before Wailuku Sugar Co. agreed to sell the water to HC&S.
The agreement held for almost a century, even during the later decades when Wailuku Sugar Co. got out of the sugar business and started selling water. HC&S wasn’t the only customer. The company started selling water to the county and that brought about the rapid development of South Maui. These days, if you are flushing a toilet or washing your face in Kihei, you are most likely using water from Na Wai Eha. And that’s how it’s been for most of our lives.
Most of us cannot remember a healthy and flowing Waikapu Stream. (Take a look for yourself at the rocky and dusty streambed as it passes beneath Honoapiilani Highway next to Waiko Road.)
But the farmers struck back. About 10 years ago, when the now aptly named Wailuku Water Co. and HC&S requested renewal of their use permits with the state water commission, a group of farmers objected. They argued, among other things, that their traditional and customary rights as Native Hawaiian kalo farmers had been violated. That started a long controversy.
While the original agreement between Wailuku Sugar Co. and HC&S stayed put, the law had changed dramatically. In the 1970s, the Hawaii Constitution was amended. Waters were no longer just any kind of property. It was held in the public trust for the benefit of all peoples. Native Hawaiians also had their traditional gathering and customary rights protected and recognized by constitutional provisions and a series of cases from the Hawaii Supreme Court. Given these revolutionary changes, the water commission was faced with new duties and tasks. The government now had a big say in the way old companies handled water.
And so the farmers’ objection turned into a 23-day evidentiary hearing involving 77 witnesses and hundreds of exhibits. The water commission required the companies to reduce the amount of water they had been diverting from two streams, but not the other two.
The case went up on appeal and the Hawaii Supreme Court ruled for the farmers – again. It held that the commission did not adequately consider the now-constitutionally protected rights of Native Hawaiian farmers and their traditional and customary rights.
The court sent the case back to Maui and after more negotiating the case was settled, as we learned this week. The terms of the settlement require the water company to restore water levels to the two remaining streams: Waikapu and Iao. Seems like the deal is going to go through. Kihei won’t lose all its water and maybe we can start to see water flowing underneath the highway in Waikapu.
The State of Aloha
Our state has a list of official symbols. “Hawaii Pono’i” is our state song. Our state bird is the nene goose. We even have a state marine mammal – the Hawaiian monk seal. And my personal favorite is the strange fact that black coral is our state “gemstone,” a true first.
But what we don’t have is a state musical instrument. The House of Representatives tried to change that and introduced a bill designating the ukulele as our official state instrument. Unfortunately, it has sparked a strange debate. It turns out there are a number of critics and opponents.
The backers of the Hawaiian steel guitar want recognition, claiming that their instrument is more important for Hawaii. The ukulele is just too worldly to be considered Hawaiian. After all, they argue, the ukulele is played in every continent and in a variety of different genres.
The steel guitar group also claims that it is a truly Hawaiian instrument since its style of play and its roots developed here in the islands. They point out that the ukulele is actually an immigrant of the Portuguese while the steel guitar was invented by a Hawaiian. As one opponent wrote, making the steel guitar the state instrument “is the PONO thing to do.”
After a strong showing by ukulele opponents, the message and purpose behind the bill changed. Suddenly, the ukulele was no longer a simple instrument associated solely with Hawaii. The bill became a celebration of a world-renowned instrument, but one that has a special place here in the islands.
When the bill moved over to the Senate, things got even more bizarre. A committee reported that despite its immense influence and popularity, the ukulele is not the only musical instrument out there. If there is going to be an official state musical instrument, it should be one that is “indigenous to the people of Hawaii and important to the Native Hawaiian culture.” And with that, the bill was amended dramatically.
It is no longer the straightforward pronouncement that caused all sorts of controversy. Instead, the bill calls for a statewide campaign for schoolchildren to decide. There are, however, a few ground rules. First, the contest would be set up in collaboration with the Office of Hawaiian Affairs. Together, the students and OHA would submit their selections or recommendations to the Legislature in 2015. The instrument “shall be indigenous to the people of the State,” it has to be “important to the Native Hawaiian culture,” and the students can pick more than one. The Legislature even provided a quick list of suggested instruments. At the top of the list is the ukulele, followed by the pahu drum, steel guitar, ipu and the nose flute.
Seems like a strange controversy. The ukulele, like the nene goose, may have ancestors and relatives elsewhere, but can’t it be considered indigenous too?
The ukulele’s ancestors are indeed Portuguese. When the Portuguese colonized the world, they brought their music. Specifically, they brought along a small stringed instrument. The generic term for the instrument is the cavaquinho, but there are several types. The Portuguese settled all over the world and brought their cavaquinho with them. In the Atlantic islands, specifically Madeira, it became known as the machete de braga or the braguinha.
The instruments headed west to Brazil and found their place in samba music, which is the unique music of Brazil. They went to Africa too. Cape Verde, the Portuguese colony, embraced the instrument and, like the Brazilian samba, it is an essential part of the musical genres there.
This was the instrument brought to the Hawaiian Islands. It adapted well. You could carry it to a field or strum it on the docks. It was portable, fairly durable, and people liked its squeaky sound. It was this high sound that led to the name we are most familiar with: the ukulele. Its adaptation also changed the instrument itself. Unlike the Portuguese miniguitars with steel, wire or gut strings, the ukulele’s strings are soft and made of nylon, which is much easier to play and makes it far more accessible for people to pick and strum.
The early versions of the bill made no distinction between the ukulele, the machete or the cavaquinho. The bill did not describe its metamorphosis. Instead, it described how the ukulele “was originally from Portugal” and “popularized by Hawaiian royalty, plantation workers and musicians.” And maybe that was why it sparked a strange debate in the first place.
Either way, not everyone is happy with the legislation.
Last week, the Senate received notice from the House that it disagreed with the amendments, and at this rate it’s unclear if the bill is going to make it to the end of the session. And even if it does, the odd debate will no doubt continue to rage on.
* Ben Lowenthal is a trial and appellate lawyer who grew up on Maui. His email is email@example.com. “The State of Aloha” alternates Fridays with Ilima Loomis’ “Neighbors.”